|The Heart of The Tree|
(i). To whom is the poet asking the question in the first line of the extract? Mention any two things, according to the extract, that man will do by planting trees.
Ans. The poet is asking the question is the first line of the extract to the readers. The man who plants a tree will make friendship with sun and sky. He also makes the tree the shaft of beauty, towering high.
(ii). Give the meaning of the following lines:
He plants a friend of sun and sky;
He plants the flag of breezes free:
Ans. The first line means that plants make food by the process of photosynthesis which can be done in the presence of sunlight and the tree is a friend of the sky because it takes in carbon dioxide from the air and releases oxygen in the air and thus purifies the air.
Also, transpiration from trees is responsible for cloud formation in the sky before it rains.
(iii) In what way are the trees friends of sun and sky? How can a man plant the flag of breezes free?
Ans. Tree are the friends of the sun as it makes food in the presence of sunlight which is the food for human being and during transpiration the water loss from the tree and after which it get converted into the cloud in the sky and thereby sun and sky are friends. Thus the plant and the sun are friends.
(iv) What is meant by "the shaft of beauty"? what is compared to the shaft?
Ans. The shaft of beauty means a beam of beauty. It is compared to the shaft because when a large number of trees are planted then it beautifies nature and it has many advantages for a human being.
When the plant has grown up into a tree it seemed like a tower.
(v) What is the impact of beginning the poem with a question? What is the figure of speech used here?
Ans. It is done to create curiosity or anxiety to know about the poem. The answer given each time denotes the important pf tree in the different sphere in human life. The figure of speech used is Hypophora or Antiphonal. Three Alliteration is used in the poem.
(i) What is known as mother-croon of bird? Why is the song sung in a hushed voice?
Ans. It means that when the mother bird sing-song for his baby then her soft song makes the evening a peaceful evening. The bird's soft song adds to the pleasant harmony of the universe. Her tone makes the dusk peaceful and calm..
(ii) What is twilight? Why is it a happy twilight?
Ans. It is a dim light at the end of the day after the sun goes down.
It is a happy twilight because when the mother bird sing-song to her baby then her soft song make the universe a pleasant and a calm evening and makes a nature happy.
(iii) What is meant by (a) treble, (b) heaven’s harmony? What role does the treble play in heaven’s harmony?
[a] Treble means high tone in music.
[b] Heaven's harmony is the way in which different musical notes are played or sung together and combine to make a pleasant sound.
The treble produced by the mother-croon sinks into the pleasant harmony of the universe.
(iv) In this lesson, under the heading, style, the meaning of metonymy is given. Give two examples of metonymy from the extract. How is it used in the context?
[a] Mother carbon of baby- It means that when the mother bird sing-song to her baby then her soft sound makes that time a peaceful evening.
[b] Heaven's harmony- It means that the tone of the mother bird makes nature peaceful just like the place of God.
(v) Give four functions which a tree performs on this earth.
1. The plant gives oxygen which is essential for a human being to inhale.
2. The Plants cause rain after the formation of clouds which balance the water cycle.
3. The plant absorbs the carbon dioxide from the air which reduces the greenhouse effect.
4. The plant gives food which is suitable for all living being.
(i) Enumerate any three benefits of planting trees as suggested by the poet in this extract. What do the plants do to provide cool shade in a place?
(a) Trees provide shade for the people who are sitting under its cool shade.
(b) Due to the transpiration of the tree water cycle remains maintained.
(c) Plants absorb carbon dioxide and give out oxygen which is necessary for the existence of life on earth.
The trees branch into huge canopies and provide shade from the heat of the sun for weary travelers and passers-by. The shade they provide is quite refreshing and 'cool' as compared to the heat of the sun.
(ii) The water evaporates, condenses and falls as rain. What role do the trees play in this process of producing rain?
Ans. When tree loss their water in the form of transpiration they form a cloud in the sky which become warm, after some time when these clouds get cool then they drop water in the form of rain. Rain is suitable for balancing the water cycle. It also helps crops to grow.
(iii) How do the last two lines of the extract explain the process of regeneration? How does the man plant the forest's heritage?
Ans. It means that the forest is inherited by a man who plants a tree. It will provide crops to the future generation(unborn eye). Surely, the upcoming generation will reap all the benefits of the tree that are being planted now.
The poet wants to explain that one who plant trees, paves a way for many more seeds and buds that will grow into numerous trees contributing the forest wealth and thus man plant forest's heritage.
(iv) How does the tree provide for the harvest of the following years?
Ans. When we plant a small tree it will take time to grow and provide us with wood, timber, fruits and medicines. The one who plants a tree plants the entire forest. This forest is thus the harvest, the future generation can enjoy.
(v) What does the expression Unborn eyes indicate? What will they see that would bring them joy?
Ans. Unborn eye indicates to the children who are yet to be born on the earth i.e. future generation. They will see the beauty of trees, enjoy the tasty fruits or foods, fresh air, cool shades, rain etc. It will also give relief from various diseases.
(i) The poet says: “ He plants, in sap and leaf and wood.” Which figure of speech is used here? Explain its usage with two other examples from the poem.
Ans. Metonymy is the figure of speech used here. The whole poem runs on a series of metonymic associations of a tree with its qualities.
According to the poet, the one who plants a tree, plants ‘cool shade’ ‘tender rain’ ‘a friend of sun and sky’ ‘the forest’s heritage’ ‘sap and leaf and wood’, etc.
(ii) What is meant by ‘far-cast thought of civic good’? In what way is the planter’s work a blessing? State for whom it is a blessing.
Ans. Far-cast thought of civic good means foreseeing the well-being of the city or its citizens.
Planters plant a tree so that human beings can get food from plant's sap and leaves and continue their race, in this way planter's work a blessing. Therefore the man who plants a tree has been described as God-like.
It is a blessing for the neighborhood and for the entire mankind.
(iii) Give the meaning of the following lines:
Who in the hollow of His hand
Holds all the growth of all our land-
Ans. Someone who plants a tree is in the hand of God. He is the only man who holds the future growth. If he has not planted the trees land will become barren without trees. The growth of the universe is possible only by planting trees.
(iv) In what way a nation’s growth depends on planting trees?
Ans. The man who plant a tree plants the whole world as the trees do not only beautify the whole world but also provide woods, food, fruits, timber, medicine, resins, fresh air and without these things growth of any nation is impossible.
(v) Comment on the appropriateness of the title of the poem "The heart of the tree".
Ans. The heart is one of the important organs of a human being. When the heart pumps the blood then only the oxygen transfer from place to place in our body. In this process tree also have some responsibilities, a tree absorbs carbon dioxide from the air and gives out oxygen which inhaled by us.
Trees like human heart provide us with ‘sap and leaf and wood’, i.e., all the required minerals, nutrients and material things. The heart here thus signifies the most important quality of the tree. It can be concluded that the title is appropriate as the poem is about trees and their importance to our survival.
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