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Geography Study Material ICSE

ICSE Geography Notes Free Download
ICSE Geography Notes PDF Free Download

Climate 

Distribution of Temperature, Rainfall, winds in Summer and Winter and factors affecting the climate of the area. Monsoon and its mechanism. Seasons: March to May – Summer; June to September – Monsoon; October to November - Retreating Monsoon. December to February – Winter.

Soil Resources 


 Types of soil (alluvial, black, red and laterite) distribution, composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals and crops associated. 
 Soil Erosion – causes, prevention and conservation.

Natural Vegetation 


 Importance of forests. 
 Types of vegetation (tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, tropical desert, littoral and mountain), distribution and correlation with their environment. 
 Forest conservation.

Water Resources 


 Sources (Surface water and ground water). 
 Need for conservation and conservation practices (Rain water harvesting and its importance). 
 Irrigation: Importance and methods.

Mineral and Energy Resources 


 Iron ore, Manganese, Copper, Bauxite – uses and their distribution. Conventional Sources: Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas (distribution, advantages and disadvantages).
 Hydel power (Bhakra Nangal Dam and Hirakud). 
 Non-conventional Sources: Solar, wind, tidal, geo-thermal, nuclear and bio-gas (generation and advantages).

Agriculture 


 Indian Agriculture – importance, problems and reforms. 
 Types of farming in India: subsistence and commercial: shifting, intensive, extensive, plantation and mixed. 
 Agricultural seasons (rabi, kharif, zayad). 
 Climatic conditions, soil requirements, methods of cultivation, processing and distribution of the following crops: - rice, wheat, millets and pulses. - sugarcane, oilseeds (groundnut, mustard and soya bean). - cotton, jute, tea and coffee. 

Manufacturing Industries 


Importance and classification 
 Agro based Industry - Sugar, Textile (Cotton and Silk). 
 Mineral based Industry – Iron & Steel (TISCO, Bhilai, Rourkela, Vishakhapatnam) Petro Chemical and Electronics. 

Transport 


Importance and Modes – Roadways, Railways, Airways and Waterways –- 
Advantages and disadvantages. 

Waste Management 


 Impact of waste accumulation - spoilage of landscape, pollution, health hazards, effect on terrestrial, aquatic (fresh water and marine) life. 
 Need for waste management. 
 Methods of safe disposal -segregation, dumping and composting. 
 Need and methods for reducing, reusing and recycling waste. 


Toppers Choice

Learn To Score Full 

Climate of India✔

Soil Resources✔

Natural Vegetation

Water Resources

Transport✔

Waste Management✔

Agriculture in India

Minerals in India✔

Industries in India- Agro Based Industries✔

Industries in India- Mineral Based Industries✔


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