The Union Legislature
Meaning of the federal setup in India.
(i) Lok Sabha - term, composition, qualifications for membership. Parliamentary procedures: a brief idea of sessions, quorum, question hour, adjournment and no-confidence motion. Speaker – election and functions.
(ii) Rajya Sabha – composition, qualifications for membership, election, term, Presiding Officer.
Powers and functions of Union Parliament - (legislative, financial, judicial, electoral, amendment of the Constitution, control over executive). Exclusive powers of the two Houses.
The Union Executive
(a) The President: Qualifications for election, composition of Electoral College, reason for indirect election, term of office, procedure for impeachment. Powers (executive, legislative, financial, judicial, discretionary and emergency)
(b) The Vice-President: Qualifications for election, term of office and powers.
(c) Prime Minister and Council of Ministers: Appointment, formation of Council of Ministers, tenure, functions - policy making, administrative, legislative, financial, emergency. Position and powers of the Prime Minister. Collective and individual responsibility of the members of the Cabinet. Distinction between the Council of Ministers and the Cabinet.
(a) The Supreme Court: Composition, qualifications of judges, appointment, independence of judiciary from the control of executive and legislature; Jurisdiction and functions: Original, Appellate, Advisory, Revisory, Judicial Review and Court of Record. Enforcement of Fundamental Rights and Writs.
(b) The High Courts: Composition, qualifications of judges, appointment; Jurisdiction and functions: Original, Appellate, Revisory, Judicial Review and Court of Record. Enforcement of Fundamental Rights and Writs.
(c) Subordinate Courts: Distinction between Court of the District Judge and Sessions Court. Lok Adalats: meaning and advantages
The Indian National Movement (1857 - 1917)
(a) The First War of Independence, 1857 Only the causes (political, socio-religious, economic and military) and consequences will be tested. [The events, however, need to be mentioned in order to maintain continuity and for a more comprehensive understanding.]
(b) Factors leading to the growth of Nationalism – economic exploitation, repressive colonial policies, socio-religious reform movements (brief mention of contribution of Raja Rammohan Roy and Jyotiba Phule) and role of the Press.
Foundation of the Indian National Congress - the Indian National Association (Surendranath Banerjee) and the East India Association (Dadabhai Naoroji) as precursors. Immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress - the first two sessions and their Presidents should be mentioned.
(c) First Phase of the Indian National Movement (1885-1907) - objectives and methods of struggle of the Early Nationalists. Any two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Second Phase of the Indian National Movement (1905-1916) - Brief mention of the causes of the Partition of Bengal and its perspective by the Nationalists. Brief mention of Surat Split of 1907; objectives and methods of struggle of the Radicals. Any two contributions of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai. The Muslim League; Factors leading to the formation of the Muslim League and its objectives. Brief mention of the significance of the Lucknow Pact - 1916.
Mass Phase of the National Movement (1915- 1947)
(a) Mahatma Gandhi - Non-Cooperation Movement : causes (Khilafat Movement, Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy), programme and suspension – Chauri Chaura incident and impact of the Movement; the Civil Disobedience Movement: causes (reaction to the Simon Commission, Declaration of Poorna Swaraj at the Lahore Session of 1929), Dandi March, programme and impact of the Movement, Gandhi-Irwin Pact and the Second Round Table Conference; the Quit India Movement: causes (failure of the Cripps Mission, Japanese threat), Quit India Resolution and the significance of the Movement.
(b) Forward Bloc (objectives) and INA (objectives and contribution of Subhas Chandra Bose).
(c) Independence and Partition of India – Cabinet Mission Plan (clauses only); Mountbatten Plan (clauses and its acceptance); and the Indian Independence Act of 1947 (clauses only).
The Contemporary World
(a) The First World War Causes (Nationalism and Imperialism, Armament Race, division of Europe and Sarajevo crisis) and Results (Treaty of Versailles, territorial rearrangements, formation of League of Nations).
(b) Rise of Dictatorships Causes for the rise of Fascism in Italy and the rise of Nazism in Germany. A comparative study of Mussolini’s Fascist and Hitler’s Nazi ideologies.
(c) The Second World War Causes (Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles, Rise of Fascism and Nazism, Policy of Appeasement, Japanese invasion of China, Failure of League of Nations and Hitler’s invasion of Poland). Brief mention of the attack on Pearl Harbour and bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Consequences (Defeat of Axis Powers, Formation of the United Nations and Cold War).
(d) United Nations
(i) The objectives of the U.N. The composition and functions of the General Assembly, the Security Council, and the International Court of Justice.
(ii) Major agencies of the United Nations: UNICEF, WHO and UNESCO - functions only.
(e) Non-Aligned Movement Brief meaning; objectives; Panchsheel; role of Jawaharlal Nehru; Names of the architects of NAM.
The First War of Independence
Growth of Nationalism
First Phase of the Indian National Movement
Second Phase of the Indian National Movement -1
Second Phase of the Indian National Movement -2
Mahatma Gandhi and The National Movement
Quit India Movement
Forward Bloc and The INA
Independence and Partition of India
The First World War
Rise of Dictatorships
The Second World War (included in Rise of Dictatorships)
United Nations -1
United Nations -2
Major Agencies of the United Nations
The Union Parliament
The President and Vice-President
The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers
The Supreme Court
The High Courts and Subordinate Courts